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It is excellent for sheep breeding, which in late times has attracted 
the attention of farmers on account of of its manifold advantages. The 
reasons why this branch of livestock breeding [is] so especially 
recommendable, are as follows: first, the exceptional cheapness of 
the land that is best-suited for it; second, the fertility of sheep; 
third, the mild climate and the ease of getting winter fodder; fourth, 
the mild climate that makes very little winter fodder necessary. Aside 
from that, wool is an item that pays very well for itself here. The 
railroads which crisscross the county assure the ease of bringing it 
to a good market. Even the land on which sheep graze is increased in 
worth significantly by the fact that they exterminate bushes, dormouse, 
brambles and the like; and, in this way, make the soil easier to plow. 
The cheaper cost of fences [for sheep], which meed not be so high as 
for other livestock, recommends their rearing to farmers in the highest 
degree.

The soil of Chariton County counts among the richest and most fertile 
in the West. Out of a region of 500,000 acres of this soil, only a fifth, 
or 125,000 acres, is under cultivation. We have a population (1870) of 
20,000. In order now to make this wide district of wild, unoccupied 
land available for cultivation, we would have to have four times as 
many inhabitants as we presently count. Without this population, we 
can achieve neither the size nor the prosperity to which our natural 
advantages entitle us, as vouchsafed [in our] soil, climate, and 
geographical position. It would be foolish on our part to say to the 
immigrant that all the advantages which a settlement in our county 
accords are not for his benefit alone. No, our interests go hand in 
hand with those of the immigrant; the more the population grows, the 
higher the land increases in value and all the easier and quicker will 
the fortunes of our county develop.

One other point needs mentioning. Beyond the distant borders of 
Missouri and Iowa, there opens up an almost boundless territory for 
settling and civilization. This territory, despite riches in minerals 
and pasturage, is but little suitable for the cultivation of cereals 
and vegetables, and fruit can be raised only under the most favorable 
atmospheric conditions. This vast stretch of land, growing daily in 
numbers of inhabitants and wealth, has to be supplied with all those 
goods which its soil and climate cannot produce. And from where is 
one to obtain these goods? From the regions, naturally, that lie 
nearest to the needy area or (the same thing) that can satisfy the 
demand with its products faster and the most cheaply over easy routes 
of traffic.

Our county, now, will be placed very shortly in directest communication 
with Omaha by the Brunswick and Omaha Railway. This latter city now 
already counts 25,000 inhabitants, and, if all indications do not 
deceive, its number of inhabitants will shortly reach 100,000. Omaha 
is the terminus of the great Union Pacific Railway and is, therefore, 
the key to that broad territory of which we have already spoken. We 
have a climate and a soil which allows our agricultural pro­



-11- ducts to ripen at least six weeks earlier than is the case in Omaha, and this circumstance provides us with a market for early fruit and vegetables, similar to the situation guaranteed to the southern part of Illinois by St. Louis and Chicago -a market that will be more valuable to us than a gold mine. Chariton County, as already mentioned further above, is capable of growing all sorts of vegetables, fruit, and cereals; and, in this respect, its bottom and bluff lands stand forth unsurpassed on our continent and, doubtless, the fact of an extremely favorable railway connection will be an invaluable and certain source of wealth and prosperity. While the eastern and western part of the county is in direct commun­ ication, by this means, with the great centers of commerce, its southern part is traversed by the Missouri River and the North Missouri Railway, establishing the connection between St. Louis and Kansas (City), likewise a briskly flourishing city. Thus, on the point of paths of communication, our county leaves nothing else to be desired and takes pre- eminence over other counties whose fertility of soil perhaps falls short of ours. For what good is fertile soil or the amount and quality of its products when getting them to market is accompanied by paying out of too high costs for their transportation. The railways are of benefit to us otherwise in that they will increase the price of our estates by double in a few years and [will] serve to promote an intelligent and industrious immigration. The sooner one comes, therefore, the better his prospects and all the greater his ease in obtaining land cheaply that is suitable to his purpose. Much already has been written and said about Missouri's enormous mineral riches. Profitable metals, like iron, lead, copper, zinc and the like, are present in such great quantities that the most extravagant estimates, above all with respect to iron, extend for centuries into the future. Even if one finds none of those kinds of minerals in Chariton County, the lack is more than compen­ sated for by immense riches in bituminous coal. According to one geological survey, it appears that a 1500 square mile (English) bed of coal runs [under] the county. At an average thickness of six feet, this deposit comprises approximately 9,000,000,000 tons. Its quality leaves nothing to be desired, and an excavation to the depth of 4-6 feet often exposes an apparently inexhaustible store of bituminous coal. Indeed, there are places in the county where coal is exposed to the light of day and can be mined with the greatest of ease. This is the case on hills where the rain or little streams have washed away the uppermost layer of earth. A surface deposit is often found under rich soil and the proprietor thereby owns a productive farm and a valuable coal mine, and it is difficult to say in many cases which is the more profitable, the products of his farm or those of his mine.
-12- The immigrant cannot be warned enough against settling in the larger cities. Such a step is not advisable in a double connection. Ignorant of the lan­guage of the land, he will be severely restricted in finding work there where, by dint of the general pressure, everything is overextended; and, even if he is successful in finding work, the salary from it is such that, in proportion to his costs of living, it will take an extraordinarily long time before he [will] attain to a self-sufficient condition. In the countryside, on the other hand, he is an inde­pendent man from the beginning on even with his small capital. The farmer in America is the freest man in the world, and soil, climate, and the general progress and development of the land enriches him daily, while the worker in the city remains a slave to capitalism. Aside from that, the tendency to remain hanging [about] in the larger cities has great drawbacks in the national context. It leads to centralization [and] to the commensurate decrease in productivity. One can see where such a drawback and such an incongruity leads in various European countries whose governments are now taking the greatest pains to make way for decentralization. In view of this inclination of foreign immigration to remain in larger cities, even our country's government has tried to bring centralization to a halt, in order to free many a one there from a wretched existence either in poverty or crime; and, through laws of various kinds to this end, has made farmers one of the most privileged classes in the United States. Every acre that is brought under cultivation increases the national wealth, and every man who settles in the countryside is worth a thousand dollars to the state, while, in the city, he is worth the same amount only to the big capitalists. Such a one who prefers the city to the countryside harms not only himself but also the country in general because he contributes to the widening of inequity between rich and poor, between capital and labor. Thanks to the excellence of the state's school laws, education is well served. Our government knew when it drew up these laws, that national wealth is often the origin of national decadence, and that real and true growth presupposes intelligence and morality. No people can prosper if ignorance and, as a consequence of that, immorality are made into prevailing characteristics. The state that ignores the intellectual and moral training of its people ignores the essential provisos of national welfare. During the war, education was much impaired as a result of the national unrest. In many regions, it was out and out suspended altogether. Now, how­ever, after the wounds of the war [have] for the most part healed, our educational system has been restored in gratifying ways, and schools have begun their tasks anew.
-13- Indifference towards public education was a notable bias of the old regime. A social system that is based on unjust caste differences, must, of necessity, look dow.n with disfavor on universal public education. An aristocracy that rests on injustice, fears the awakening of the people's intelligence. Now, however, where this hindrance to public education has been elim­ inated, where the barbaric remains of feudal tyranny have had to give way to the victorious impulse of progress and to the principle of equality, and their shadows have fallen into oblivion, we will be able to go forward with more freedom in education. Schools have been reorganized throughout the state. Our county is sufficiently supplied with good schools, [but] where the need is evident, it is promptly satisfied by the speedy erection of school buildings and the hiring of competent teachers. Up to a certain degree, even teaching in German is [being] provided to the extent that we have gotten more German teachers in our county. ---++--­ As is seen from the foregoing, therefore, Chariton County recommends itself to the German immigrant as a favorable area in which to settle. Climate, soil, productivity, fellowship, schools, everything is conducive to make [one] not miss the benefits of the old homeland while other still much greater ones await him here. Our advice is thus: come, see, hear and settle. The German Immigration Society which [has] existed here for some years, will take all pains to be of help without charge to the newly-arrived in choosing suitable properties or in finding work. The president of the above named Society can be reached by mail (address: Louis Benecke, Brunswick, Chariton County, Missouri), who will most willingly respond with information to all inquiries. It is one of the principal charges of this Society to protect the settler from over trumpeted claims and to instruct him on the worth or worthlessness of marketable land. People who have land, houses and so forth to sell, or who require workers, frequently turn to [us], and right many a family has obtained a suitable piece of land and worthwhile work through our effectiveness and mediation. On behalf of the Society: Louis Benecke, President Brunswick, Mo.
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